Metabolic Health

Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These conditions are characterised by high blood pressure, high triglyceride levels and high blood sugar levels.

In the industrialised world there is a rising prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases like type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease and obesity. Approximately 25% of the adult population have a condition called metabolic syndrome[1], a cluster of conditions that occur together[2]:

  • increased blood pressure (hypertension)
  • high blood sugar (dysglycaemia)
  • obesity (especially excess body fat around the waist)
  • abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels (dyslipidaemia)
  • insulin resistance.

Taken together, these conditions increase the risk of heart disease, stroke and type II diabetes [3].

Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome include physical activity and diet change.

Resolve and important nutrients for a healthy metabolism

Smartfish offers a potent health drink, RESOLVE, which has been developed to address nutritional deficiencies associated with low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and metabolic aberrations.

The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA anti-inflammatory properties have a positive effect on atherosclerotic development as well as blood lipids [4] [5], and several studies have shown the protective role of omega-3 in the development of cardiovascular disease[6] [7]. In addition, studies have shown that dietary intake of EPA and DHA leads to improved insulin sensitivity[8] [9] [10] [11], reduced blood glucose and a reduced risk of type II diabetes[12] [13] [14]. Some studies also show that EPA and DHA may have a role in reducing fat mass in obese people[15].

Beta glucans, a type of fibre from oats, have a number of benefits in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome, due to their cholesterol-lowering effects[16], as well as their effect on plasma glucose after a meal[17]. In addition, the fibres increase satiety, and can thereby contribute to a reduced risk of overweight.

Vitamin D is a nutrient that can be added through the diet, but it is also formed in the skin when exposed to the sun. Most people do not have a vitamin D deficiency, but many do not have an optimal level of the vitamin. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with insulin resistance, high serum levels of insulin and increased risk of developing type II diabetes [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24].

[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540707/

[2] Alberti et al., 2009

[3] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5866840/

[4] Wei MY, Jacobson TA. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Atheroscler Rep. (2011)

[5] J Hypertens Suppl. 1994;12(7):S23-31. The effect of fish oil on blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in phase I of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. Sacks FM1, Hebert P, Appel LJ, Borhani NO, Applegate WB, Cohen JD, Cutler JA, Kirchner KA, Kuller LH, Roth KJ, et al.

[6] Simopoulos AP. The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). (2008)

[7] de Lorgeril M, et al. Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet. (1994)

[8] Tsitouras PD, et al. High omega-3 fat intake improves insulin sensitivity and reduces CRP and IL6, but does not affect other endocrine axes in healthy older adults. Horm Metab Res. (2008)

[9] Fedor D, Kelley DS. Prevention of insulin resistance by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2009)

[10] Ramel A, et al. Beneficial effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids included in an energy-restricted diet on insulin resistance in overweight and obese European young adults. Diabetologia. (2008)

[11] Maki KC, et al. Prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters reduce fasting and postprandial triglycerides and modestly reduce pancreatic β-cell response in subjects with primary hypertriglyceridemia. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. (2011)

[12] Huang T, et al. Plasma phospholipids n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid is associated with metabolic syndrome. Mol Nutr Food Res. (2010)

[13] Lauretani F, et al. Omega-3 and renal function in older adults. Curr Pharm Des. (2009)

[14] Huang T, et al. Increased plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid is associated with improved insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes in China. Mol Nutr Food Res. (2010)

[15] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3210336/

[16] https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1885

[17] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2663451/

[18] Liu 2009,

[19] Ford 2011,

[20] Kelly 2011,

[21] Chiu 2004,

[22] Sepehrmanesh 2016,

[23] Choi 2011,

[24] Devaraj 2011

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